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2/4/18

Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

 Epidemiology of Breast Cancer :

1. Distribution and frequency of breast cancer

Epidemiology of Breast Cancer. Age is an important factor that will certainly identify the incidence or frequency of breast cancer.
The American Cancer Society reported during the years 2000-2004, the highest incidence of breast cancer in women aged 75-79 years is 464.8 100,000 women.
In Indonesia as considerably as 30.35% of breast cancers are found in the age of 40-49 years,
As well as in Japan as considerably as 40.6% of breast cancers are found in the age of 40-49 years.
All women have an increased risk of breast cancer, the disease can also occur in men with a ratio of 1: 100 among men and women. The American Cancer Society reported in 2005 in the US
women diagnosed with breast cancer as considerably as 269 730 women.

According Tjindarbumi cited by Wahyu (2001), the incidence of cancer breast varies in each country. In the United incidence 71.7 per 100,000 population, in Australia incidence of 55.6 per 100,000 population. As for the Asian countries for example in Indonesia incidence of 22.2 per 100,000 population and in Japan 16 per 100,000 population.


2. Determinants of Breast Cancer

 Epidemiology of Breast Cancer. Until now there has actually been known major create of breast cancer. However, there are some risk factors are carefully related to the occurrence of cancer breast, namely:

a. Age

Increased risk of breast cancer with advancing age.
Women are many commonly affected by breast cancer are over 40 years old, although
it does not mean women are not possible under the age of cancer
breast, only a lower incidence compared to women over 40 years

b. History of Marriage

Marital history associated with parity, age at initial birth and a history of breastfeeding children. Not married have 2-4 times higher risk than women that are married and have no children.
Women who gave birth to her initial child after age 35 the risk is 2-4 times higher than women who gave birth to her initial child under the age of 35 years. married risk Lenih 2.7 times higher than women who are married and have anak. Women not breastfeed her child at risk of breast cancer than women who breastfeed her child. The function of the hormone prolactin is to stimulate lactation so that the normal mammary gland function and stimulates the secretion of hormones progesterone which is to protect women against breast cancer.

c. Early menarche age

When the first period came before the age of 12 years, then the woman will experience circulating estrogen throughout life longer. The hormone estrogen can stimulate growth in the mammary gland ducts. Of exposure longer than the hormone estrogen can cause changes in the cells of the ducts of the mammary gland.
Such changes may include hypertrophy and abnormal proliferation of so Menarche less than 12 years are at risk of 1.7 to 3.4 times higher than women with normal age of menarche come on that is more than 12 years.

d. Late menopause

Women who experience menopause late more than 55 years, the risk is 2.5 to 5 times higher than in women that are past menopause less than 55 years.
Azamris Research Hospital in 1998-2000 Dr.M.Djamil Padang Factor menopause obtained had 1.89 times the risk (CI 1,71- 2,06). This shows that breast cancer is more often about the female menopause.


e. Suffering from Benign Breast Tumors

Women that had benign breast surgery risk 2.5 times higher than women who have never ever had a benign breast tumors. Women with carcinoma of the breast have an increased risk of suffering from breast carcinoma on the various other side.

f. Family History

Women who have a family member with breast cancer (mother, sister woman's mother, brother or sister) 2-3 times higher risk than women who do not have family members with breast cancer. Risk for female relatives of a woman suffering from cancer only on one breast slightly larger than the population of women who do not suffering from cancer.

g. Obesity

Adults who have excessive physique weight (obesity) risk for breast cancer. This risk is caused by fat in the blood berebihan increase estrogen levels in the blood, thereby increasing the growth cancer cells.

According to Nagi and Lee Moffit report cited by Luwia (2004) showed that women who gain weight at the age of 30 year, and that his body fat is more upper body, not just have a better risk for breast cancer, but it also has risks are more most likely to die from the cancer.

h. High-Fat Food Consumption

Women who frequently consume foods higher in fat, the risk is 2 times more height of which is not often consume foods higher in fat.

i. Alcohol and cigarettes

Women that drink alcohol 5 times higher risk than women not drinkers. This is based on the fact that alcohol can increase estrogen while women smokers' risk 2 times higher than women not smoker.


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