Secondary Prevention Of Breast Cancer

Secondary Prevention Of Breast Cancer

Secondary Prevention Of Breast Cancer

Secondary prevention in the form of an attempt to prevent more damage advanced breast cancer by identifying population groups at higher risk of breast cancer, and early detection of asymptomatic individuals. Early detection can be done by:

a. Clinical Breast Examination

1) Looking for lumps or other abnormalities. Because breast organs affected by hormonal factors, among others,   estrogen and progesterone, it ought to be breast examination performed at the time of this hormonal influence to a minimum maybe / after menstruation ± 1 weeks of the last day of menstruation.
2) Patients examined with an open upper body.
3) Position upright (sitting).
4) The patient sits with hands free fall to the side and front of the examiner standing in a position that is more or much less the same height.

b. Inspection (view)

1) Comparing the size of the (symmetric) or between the right and left breast.
2) There were no abnormalities in the nipple or breast (mammary papilla), the location and form, is there any withdrawal (retracted) nipples, skin disorders, signs inflammation, abnormal color (peau de'orange), dimpling (dimple / indentation), ulcers (ulceration), and others.

c. Palpation

Patients lie down and labored to spread breast fell flat on Chest field, if necessary shoulder / back propped up with a small pillow in patients the big breasts.

d. Mammography examination

Mammography is a radiological examination with x-ray method in breast and level adisinya made as small as possible so as not towards cause the effect of age is recommended to be done anytime nonproductive only.
The American Cancer Society recommends the following program:
- For women aged 35-39 years, just 1 time mammography.
- For women aged 40-50 years, merely do 1 or 2 years.
- In women aged over 50 years, mammography performed a year once.

e. Ultrasonography (USG)

Ultrasound examination is a tool that uses wave sound and do not use X-ray. This examination does not give rise to a sense of pain in patients. Breast ultrasound addressed as follows:
1. To check for women aged under 35 years, pregnant women, and women who are breastfeeding.
2. To distinguish cysts with solid tumors containing tissue. in Order To help mammography results in order to
        obtain a better accuracy rate.
3. To assist the outcomes of mammography in order to obtain the value of the ore accuracy high.

f. Xerography:

A "fotoelectric imaging system" based on knowledge xerografic. High enough diagnostic -Ketepatan 95.3% which can happen "false positive" ± 5%.

g. Scintimammografi

is a radionuclide examination techniques using 99m Tc radioisotope sestamibi. Pemerisaan has a high sensitivity to assess the activity of cancer cells in the breast but it can pua detect multiple lesions and lymph nodes involvement regional.

Tertiary Prevention Of Breast Cancer

Tertiary prevention is usually directed at individuals who have suffered positive breast cancer. Proper treatment of breast cancer patients in accordance with the the stage will be able to reduce disability and prolong life expectancy sufferers. Tertiary prevention is crucial to improve the quality of life of patients and prevent complications of the disease and go on treatment. After completion of the rehabilitation treatment needs towards be done like movements to help restore motor function and to reduce swelling.

Medical Management

Patterns of breast cancer treatment depend on the stage of the tumor. success
treatment of breast cancer depends on the stage. The earlier found
more easily cured. There are 3 ways standardized treatment are:

1. Operation

Treatment measures can be provided by operations performed by
take part or every one of of the breast. This treatment aims to
discard the cancer cells in the breast. The types of surgery performed to treat breast cancer are as follows:

a. lumpectomy

Lumpectomy is the surgical removal of part of the breast where appointment only in tissues that contain cancer cells, not whole breast. This operation is constantly followed by administration of radiotherapy. Used towards lumpectomy is recommended in patients with large tumor less than 2 cm and located alongside the breast.

b. mastectomy

Mastectomy is surgery performed to remove the entire and their breast cancer, sometimes along the chest wall muscle.

c. Lymph node surgery Appointment

This surgery is usually done if the existing deployment of breast cancer to lymph nodes in the armpit.

2. Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is the treatment by irradiation damaged areas esophageal cancer, with the goal to destroy cancer cells. Selection of the type of radiotherapy are used based on the location of the cancer, the diagnosis, and stage of the cancer. Radiotherapy can be done after surgery or before surgery.

3. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the process of anti-cancer drugs in pill form liquid, capsule or infusion aimed at killing cancer cells not only in the breast but also the entire body. The effects of chemotherapy are nausea and vomiting of patients experiencing drug. Chemotherapy is usually given 1-2 weeks after surgery. But for tumors that are too large, should be preoperative chemotherapy.

4. Hormonal Therapy

Hormonal therapy is when a disease has a systemic form of distant metastases. Hormonal therapy is usually given palliative before kemotherapi for effect longer and less side effects, but not all cancers are sensitive to therapy
hormonal. Hormonal therapy is the mainstay of therapy in stage IV.

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